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标准电极电势表  

2012-05-26 17:26:40|  分类: 化学物理与电池 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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标准电极电势表

标准电极电势是可逆电极在标准状态及平衡态时的电势,也就是标准态时的电极电势.标准电极电势有很大的实用价值,可用来判断氧化剂与还原剂的相对强弱,判断氧化还原反应的进行方向,计算原电池的电动势、反应自由能、平衡常数,计算其他半反应的标准电极电势,等等。将半反应按电极电势由低到高排序,可以得到标准电极电势表,可十分简明地判断氧还反应的方向.

 

目录

电极电势的产生 — 双电层理论

公式

电极电势内容

 

电极电势的产生 — 双电层理论

德国化学家能斯特(H.W.Nernst)提出了双电层理论(electron double layer theory)解释电极电势的产生的原因。当金属放入溶液中时,一方面金属晶体中处于热运动的金属离子在极性水分子的作用下,离开金属表面进入溶液。金属性质越活泼,这种趋势就越大;另一方面溶液中的金属离子,由于受到金属表面电子的吸引,而在金属表面沉积,溶液中金属离子的浓度越大,这种趋势也越大。在一定浓度的溶液中达到平衡后,在金属和溶液两相界面上形成了一个带相反电荷的双电层(electron double layer),双电层的厚度虽然很小(约为10-8厘米数量级), 但却在金属和溶液之间产生了电势差。通常人们就把产生在金属和盐溶液之间的双电层间的电势差称为金属的电极电势(electrode potential),并以此描述电极得失电子能力的相对强弱。电极电势以符号E Mn+/ Mn表示, 单位为V(伏)。 如锌的电极电势以EZn2+/ Zn 表示, 铜的电极电势以ECu2+/Cu 表示。

电极电势的大小主要取决于电极的本性,并受温度、介质和离子浓度等因素的影响。

 

公式

任何温度下标准氢电极的标准电极电势值都为0,但其他电极电势值会受到温度影响。以Ni/NiO电极为例,它可以用作高温伪参比电极,在0-400°C时的电极电势大致符合以下公式:

E°(T)=-0.0003T+0.1414 ,T为温度

 

电极电势内容

1 在酸性溶液中 (298K)

电对 方程式 Eq/V

Li(I)-(0) Li++e-=Li -3.0401

Cs(I)-(0) Cs++e-=Cs -3.026

Rb(I)-(0) Rb++e-=Rb -2.98

K(I)-(0) K++e-=K -2.931

Ba(II)-(0) Ba2++2e-=Ba -2.912

Sr(II)-(0) Sr2++2e-=Sr -2.89

Ca(II)-(0) Ca2++2e-=Ca -2.868

Na(I)-(0) Na++e-=Na -2.71

La(III)-(0) La3++3e-=La -2.379

Mg(II)-(0) Mg2++2e-=Mg -2.372

Ce(III)-(0) Ce3++3e-=Ce -2.336

H(0)-(-I) H2(g)+2e-=2H- -2.23

Al(III)-(0) AlF63-+3e-=Al+6F- -2.069

Th(IV)-(0) Th4++4e-=Th -1.899

Be(II)-(0) Be2++2e-=Be -1.847

U(III)-(0) U3++3e-=U -1.798

Hf(IV)-(0) HfO2++2H++4e-=Hf+H2O -1.724

Al(III)-(0) Al3++3e-=Al -1.662

Ti(II)-(0) Ti2++2e-=Ti -1.630

Zr(IV)-(0) ZrO2+4H++4e-=Zr+2H2O -1.553

Si(IV)-(0) [SiF6]2-+4e-=Si+6F- -1.24

Mn(II)-(0) Mn2++2e-=Mn -1.185

Cr(II)-(0) Cr2++2e-=Cr -0.913

Ti(III)-(II) Ti3++e-=Ti2+ -0.9

B(III)-(0) H3BO3+3H++3e-=B+3H2O -0.8698

*Ti(IV)-(0) TiO2+4H++4e-=Ti+2H2O -0.86

Te(0)-(-II) Te+2H++2e-=H2Te -0.793

Zn(II)-(0) Zn2++2e-=Zn -0.7618

Ta(V)-(0) Ta2O5+10H++10e-=2Ta+5H2O -0.750

Cr(III)-(0) Cr3++3e-=Cr -0.744

Nb(V)-(0) Nb2O5+l0H++10e-=2Nb+5H2O -0.644

As(0)-(-III) As+3H++3e-=AsH3 -0.608

U(IV)-(III) U4++e-=U3+ -0.607

Ga(III)-(0) Ga3++3e-=Ga -0.549

P(I)-(0) H3PO2+H++e-=P+2H2O -0.508

P(III)-(I) H3PO3+2H++2e-=H3PO2+H2O -0.499

*C(IV)-(III) 2CO2+2H++2e-=H2C2O4 -0.49

Fe(II)-(0) Fe2++2e-=Fe -0.447

Cr(III)-(II) Cr3++e-=Cr2+ -0.407

Cd(II)-(0) Cd2++2e-=Cd -0.4030

Se(0)-(-II) Se+2H++2e-=H2Se(aq) -0.399

Pb(II)-(0) PbI2+2e-=Pb+2I- -0.365

Eu(III)-(II) Eu3++e-=Eu2+ -0.36

Pb(II)-(0) PbSO4+2e-=Pb+SO42- -0.3588

In(III)-(0) In3++3e-=In -0.3382

Tl(I)-(0) Tl++e-=Tl -0.336

Co(II)-(0) Co2++2e-=Co -0.28

P(V)-(III) H3PO4+2H++2e-=H3PO3+H2O -0.276

Pb(II)-(0) PbCl2+2e-=Pb+2Cl- -0.2675

Ni (II)-(0) Ni2++2e-=Ni -0.257

V(III)-(II) V3++e-=V2+ -0.255

Ge(IV)-(0) H2GeO3+4H++4e-=Ge+3H2O -0.182

Ag(I)-(0) AgI+e-=Ag+I- -0.15224

Sn(II)-(0) Sn2++2e-=Sn -0.1375

Pb(II)-(0) Pb2++2e-=Pb -0.1262

*C(IV)-(II) CO2(g)+2H++2e-=CO+H2O -0.12

P(0)-(-III) P(white)+3H++3e-=PH3(g) -0.063

Hg(I)-(0) Hg2I2+2e-=2Hg+2I- -0.0405

Fe(III)-(0) Fe3++3e-=Fe -0.037

H(I)-(0) 2H++2e-=H2 0.0000

Ag(I)-(0) AgBr+e-=Ag+Br- 0.07133

S(II.V)-(II) S4O62-+2e-=2S2O32- 0.08

*Ti(IV)-(III) TiO2++2H++e-=Ti3++H2O 0.1

S(0)-(-II) S+2H++2e-=H2S(aq) 0.142

Sn(IV)-(II) Sn4++2e-=Sn2+ 0.151

Sb(III)-(0) Sb2O3+6H++6e-=2Sb+3H2O 0.152

Cu(II)-(I) Cu2++e-=Cu+ 0.153

Bi(III)-(0) BiOCl+2H++3e-=Bi+Cl-+H2O 0.1583

S(VI)-(IV) SO42-+4H++2e-=H2SO3+H2O 0.172

Sb(III)-(0) SbO++2H++3e-=Sb+H2O 0.212

Ag(I)-(0) AgCl+e-=Ag+Cl- 0.22233

As(III)-(0) HAsO2+3H++3e-=As+2H2O 0.248

Hg(I)-(0) Hg2Cl2+2e-=2Hg+2Cl-(饱和KCl) 0.26808

Bi(III)-(0) BiO++2H++3e-=Bi+H2O 0.320

U(VI)-(IV) UO22++4H++2e-=U4++2H2O 0.327

C(IV)-(III) 2HCNO+2H++2e-=(CN)2+2H2O 0.330

V(IV)-(III) VO2++2H++e-=V3++H2O 0.337

Cu(II)-(0) Cu2++2e-=Cu 0.3419

Re(VII)-(0) ReO4-+8H++7e-=Re+4H2O 0.368

Ag(I)-(0) Ag2CrO4+2e-=2Ag+CrO42- 0.4470

S(IV)-(0) H2SO3+4H++4e-=S+3H2O 0.449

Cu(I)-(0) Cu++e-=Cu 0.521

I(0)-(-I) I2+2e-=2I- 0.5355

I(0)-(-I) I3-+2e-=3I- 0.536

As(V)-(III) H3AsO4+2H++2e-=HAsO2+2H2O 0.560

Sb(V)-(III) Sb2O5+6H++4e-=2SbO++3H2O 0.581

Te(IV)-(0) TeO2+4H++4e-=Te+2H2O 0.593

U(V)-(IV) UO2++4H++e-=U4++2H2O 0.612

**Hg(II)-(I) 2HgCl2+2e-=Hg2Cl2+2Cl- 0.63

Pt(IV)-(II) [PtCl6]2-+2e-=[PtCl4]2-+2Cl- 0.68

O(0)-(-I) O2+2H++2e-=H2O2 0.695

Pt(II)-(0) [PtCl4]2-+2e-=Pt+4Cl- 0.755

*Se(IV)-(0) H2SeO3+4H++4e-=Se+3H2O 0.74

Fe(III)-(II) Fe3++e-=Fe2+ 0.771

Hg(I)-(0) Hg22++2e-=2Hg 0.7973

Ag(I)-(0) Ag++e-=Ag 0.7996

Os(VIII)-(0) OsO4+8H++8e-=Os+4H2O 0.8

N(V)-(IV) 2NO3-+4H++2e-=N2O4+2H2O 0.803

Hg(II)-(0) Hg2++2e-=Hg 0.851

Si(IV)-(0) (quartz)SiO2+4H++4e-=Si+2H2O 0.857

Cu(II)-(I) Cu2++I-+e-=CuI 0.86

N(III)-(I) 2HNO2+4H++4e-=H2N2O2+2H2O 0.86

Hg(II)-(I) 2Hg2++2e-=Hg22+ 0.920

N(V)-(III) NO3-+3H++2e-=HNO2+H2O 0.934

Pd(II)-(0) Pd2++2e-=Pd 0.951

N(V)-(II) NO3-+4H++3e-=NO+2H2O 0.957

N(III)-(II) HNO2+H++e-=NO+H2O 0.983

I(I)-(-I) HIO+H++2e-=I-+H2O 0.987

V(V)-(IV) VO2++2H++e-=VO2++H2O 0.991

V(V)-(IV) V(OH)4++2H++e-=VO2++3H2O 1.00

Au(III)-(0) [AuCl4]-+3e-=Au+4Cl- 1.002

Te(VI)-(IV) H6TeO6+2H++2e-=TeO2+4H2O 1.02

N(IV)-(II) N2O4+4H++4e-=2NO+2H2O 1.035

N(IV)-(III) N2O4+2H++2e-=2HNO2 1.065

I(V)-(-I) IO3-+6H++6e-=I-+3H2O 1.085

Br(0)-(-I) Br2(aq)+2e-=2Br- 1.0873

Se(VI)-(IV) SeO42-+4H++2e-=H2SeO3+H2O 1.151

Cl(V)-(IV) ClO3-+2H++e-=ClO2+H2O 1.152

Pt(II)-(0) Pt2++2e-=Pt 1.18

Cl(VII)-(V) ClO4-+2H++2e-=ClO3-+H2O 1.189

I(V)-(0) 2IO3-+12H++10e-=I2+6H2O 1.195

Cl(V)-(III) ClO3-+3H++2e-=HClO2+H2O 1.214

Mn(IV)-(II) MnO2+4H++2e-=Mn2++2H2O 1.224

O(0)-(-II) O2+4H++4e-=2H2O 1.229

Tl(III)-(I) T13++2e-=Tl+ 1.252

Cl(IV)-(III) ClO2+H++e-=HClO2 1.277

N(III)-(I) 2HNO2+4H++4e-=N2O+3H2O 1.297

**Cr(VI)-(III) Cr2O72-+14H++6e-=2Cr3++7H2O 1.33

Br(I)-(-I) HBrO+H++2e-=Br-+H2O 1.331

Cr(VI)-(III) HCrO4-+7H++3e-=Cr3++4H2O 1.350

Cl(0)-(-I) Cl2(g)+2e-=2Cl- 1.35827

Cl(VII)-(-I) ClO4-+8H++8e-=Cl-+4H2O 1.389

Cl(VII)-(0) ClO4-+8H++7e-=1/2Cl2+4H2O 1.39

Au(III)-(I) Au3++2e-=Au+ 1.401

Br(V)-(-I) BrO3-+6H++6e-=Br-+3H2O 1.423

I(I)-(0) 2HIO+2H++2e-=I2+2H2O 1.439

Cl(V)-(-I) ClO3-+6H++6e-=Cl-+3H2O 1.451

Pb(IV)-(II) PbO2+4H++2e-=Pb2++2H2O 1.455

Cl(V)-(0) ClO3-+6H++5e-=1/2Cl2+3H2O 1.47

Cl(I)-(-I) HClO+H++2e-=Cl-+H2O 1.482

Br(V)-(0) BrO3-+6H++5e-=l/2Br2+3H2O 1.482

Au(III)-(0) Au3++3e-=Au 1.498

Mn(VII)-(II) MnO4-+8H++5e-=Mn2++4H2O 1.507

Mn(III)-(II) Mn3++e-=Mn2+ 1.5415

Cl(III)-(-I) HClO2+3H++4e-=Cl-+2H2O 1.570

Br(I)-(0) HBrO+H++e-=l/2Br2(aq)+H2O 1.574

N(II)-(I) 2NO+2H++2e-=N2O+H2O 1.591

I(VII)-(V) H5IO6+H++2e-=IO3-+3H2O 1.601

Cl(I)-(0) HClO+H++e-=1/2Cl2+H2O 1.611

Cl(III)-(I) HClO2+2H++2e-=HClO+H2O 1.645

Ni(IV)-(II) NiO2+4H++2e-=Ni2++2H2O 1.678

Mn(VII)-(IV) MnO4-+4H++3e-=MnO2+2H2O 1.679

Pb(IV)-(II) PbO2+SO42-+4H++2e-=PbSO4+2H2O 1.6913

Au(I)-(0) Au++e-=Au 1.692

Ce(IV)-(III) Ce4++e-=Ce3+ 1.72

N(I)-(0) N2O+2H++2e-=N2+H2O 1.766

O(-I)-(-II) H2O2+2H++2e-=2H2O 1.776

Co(III)-(II) Co3++e-=Co2+(2mol·L-1 H2SO4) 1.83

Ag(II)-(I) Ag2++e-=Ag+ 1.980

S(VII)-(VI) S2O82-+2e-=2SO42- 2.010

O(0)-(-II) O3+2H++2e-=O2+H2O 2.076

O(II)-(-II) F2O+2H++4e-=H2O+2F- 2.153

Fe(VI)-(III) FeO42-+8H++3e-=Fe3++4H2O 2.20

O(0)-(-II) O(g)+2H++2e-=H2O 2.421

F(0)-(-I) F2+2e-=2F- 2.866

F2+2H++2e-=2HF 3.053

2 在碱性溶液中 (298K)

电对 方程式 Eq/V

Ca(II)-(0) Ca(OH)2+2e-=Ca+2OH- -3.02

Ba(II)-(0) Ba(OH)2+2e-=Ba+2OH- -2.99

La(III)-(0) La(OH)3+3e-=La+3OH- -2.90

Sr(II)-(0) Sr(OH)2·8H2O+2e-=Sr+2OH-+8H2O -2.88

Mg(II)-(0) Mg(OH)2+2e-=Mg+2OH- -2.690

Be(II)-(0) Be2O32-+3H2O+4e-=2Be+6OH- -2.63

Hf(IV)-(0) HfO(OH)2+H2O+4e-=Hf+4OH- -2.50

Zr(IV)-(0) H2ZrO3+H2O+4e-=Zr+4OH- -2.36

Al(III)-(0) H2AlO3-+H2O+3e-=Al+OH- -2.33

P(I)-(0) H2PO2-+e-=P+2OH- -1.82

B(III)-(0) H2BO3-+H2O+3e-=B+4OH- -1.79

P(III)-(0) HPO32-+2H2O+3e-=P+5OH- -1.71

Si(IV)-(0) SiO32-+3H2O+4e-=Si+6OH- -1.697

P(III)-(I) HPO32-+2H2O+2e-=H2PO2-+3OH- -1.65

Mn(II)-(0) Mn(OH)2+2e-=Mn+2OH- -1.56

Cr(III)-(0) Cr(OH)3+3e-=Cr+3OH- -1.48

*Zn(II)-(0) [Zn(CN)4]2-+2e-=Zn+4CN- -1.26

Zn(II)-(0) Zn(OH)2+2e-=Zn+2OH- -1.249

Ga(III)-(0) H2GaO3-+H2O+2e-=Ga+4OH- -1.219

Zn(II)-(0) ZnO22-+2H2O+2e-=Zn+4OH- -1.215

Cr(III)-(0) CrO2-+2H2O+3e-=Cr+4OH- -1.2

Te(0)-(-I) Te+2e-=Te2- -1.143

P(V)-(III) PO43-+2H2O+2e-=HPO32-+3OH- -1.05

*Zn(II)-(0) [Zn(NH3)4]2++2e-=Zn+4NH3 -1.04

*W(VI)-(0) WO42-+4H2O+6e-=W+8OH- -1.01

*Ge(IV)-(0) HGeO3-+2H2O+4e-=Ge+5OH- -1.0

Sn(IV)-(II) [Sn(OH)6]2-+2e-=HSnO2-+H2O+3OH- -0.93

S(VI)-(IV) SO42-+H2O+2e-=SO32-+2OH- -0.93

Se(0)-(-II) Se+2e-=Se2- -0.924

Sn(II)-(0) HSnO2-+H2O+2e-=Sn+3OH- -0.909

P(0)-(-III) P+3H2O+3e-=PH3(g)+3OH- -0.87

N(V)-(IV) 2NO3-+2H2O+2e-=N2O4+4OH- -0.85

H(I)-(0) 2H2O+2e-=H2+2OH- -0.8277

Cd(II)-(0) Cd(OH)2+2e-=Cd(Hg)+2OH- -0.809

Co(II)-(0) Co(OH)2+2e-=Co+2OH- -0.73

Ni(II)-(0) Ni(OH)2+2e-=Ni+2OH- -0.72

As(V)-(III) AsO43-+2H2O+2e-=AsO2-+4OH- -0.71

Ag(I)-(0) Ag2S+2e-=2Ag+S2- -0.691

As(III)-(0) AsO2-+2H2O+3e-=As+4OH- -0.68

Sb(III)-(0) SbO2-+2H2O+3e-=Sb+4OH- -0.66

*Re(VII)-(IV) ReO4-+2H2O+3e-=ReO2+4OH- -0.59

*Sb(V)-(III) SbO3-+H2O+2e-=SbO2-+2OH- -0.59

Re(VII)-(0) ReO4-+4H2O+7e-=Re+8OH- -0.584

*S(IV)-(II) 2SO32-+3H2O+4e-=S2O32-+6OH- -0.58

Te(IV)-(0) TeO32-+3H2O+4e-=Te+6OH- -0.57

Fe(III)-(II) Fe(OH)3+e-=Fe(OH)2+OH- -0.56

S(0)-(-II) S+2e-=S2- -0.47627

Bi(III)-(0) Bi2O3+3H2O+6e-=2Bi+6OH- -0.46

N(III)-(II) NO2-+H2O+e-=NO+2OH- -0.46

*Co(II)-C(0) [Co(NH3)6]2++2e-=Co+6NH3 -0.422

Se(IV)-(0) SeO32-+3H2O+4e-=Se+6OH- -0.366

Cu(I)-(0) Cu2O+H2O+2e-=2Cu+2OH- -0.360

Tl(I)-(0) Tl(OH)+e-=Tl+OH- -0.34

*Ag(I)-(0) [Ag(CN)2]-+e-=Ag+2CN- -0.31

Cu(II)-(0) Cu(OH)2+2e-=Cu+2OH- -0.222

Cr(VI)-(III) CrO42-+4H2O+3e-=Cr(OH)3+5OH- -0.13

*Cu(I)-(0) [Cu(NH3)2]++e-=Cu+2NH3 -0.12

O(0)-(-I) O2+H2O+2e-=HO2-+OH- -0.076

Ag(I)-(0) AgCN+e-=Ag+CN- -0.017

N(V)-(III) NO3-+H2O+2e-=NO2-+2OH- 0.01

Se(VI)-(IV) SeO42-+H2O+2e-=SeO32-+2OH- 0.05

Pd(II)-(0) Pd(OH)2+2e-=Pd+2OH- 0.07

S(II,V)-(II) S4O62-+2e-=2S2O32- 0.08

Hg(II)-(0) HgO+H2O+2e-=Hg+2OH- 0.0977

Co(III)-(II) [Co(NH3)6]3++e-=[Co(NH3)6]2+ 0.108

Pt(II)-(0) Pt(OH)2+2e-=Pt+2OH- 0.14

Co(III)-(II) Co(OH)3+e-=Co(OH)2+OH- 0.17

Pb(IV)-(II) PbO2+H2O+2e-=PbO+2OH- 0.247

I(V)-(-I) IO3-+3H2O+6e-=I-+6OH- 0.26

Cl(V)-(III) ClO3-+H2O+2e-=ClO2-+2OH- 0.33

Ag(I)-(0) Ag2O+H2O+2e-=2Ag+2OH- 0.342

Fe(III)-(II) [Fe(CN)6]3-+e-=[Fe(CN)6]4- 0.358

Cl(VII)-(V) ClO4-+H2O+2e-=ClO3-+2OH- 0.36

*Ag(I)-(0) [Ag(NH3)2]++e-=Ag+2NH3 0.373

O(0)-(-II) O2+2H2O+4e-=4OH- 0.401

I(I)-(-I) IO-+H2O+2e-=I-+2OH- 0.485

*Ni(IV)-(II) NiO2+2H2O+2e-=Ni(OH)2+2OH- 0.490

Mn(VII)-(VI) MnO4-+e-=MnO42- 0.558

Mn(VII)-(IV) MnO4-+2H2O+3e-=MnO2+4OH- 0.595

Mn(VI)-(IV) MnO42-+2H2O+2e-=MnO2+4OH- 0.60

Ag(II)-(I) 2AgO+H2O+2e-=Ag2O+2OH- 0.607

Br(V)-(-I) BrO3-+3H2O+6e-=Br-+6OH- 0.61

Cl(V)-(-I) ClO3-+3H2O+6e-=Cl-+6OH- 0.62

Cl(III)-(I) ClO2-+H2O+2e-=ClO-+2OH- 0.66

I(VII)-(V) H3IO62-+2e-=IO3-+3OH- 0.7

Cl(III)-(-I) ClO2-+2H2O+4e-=Cl-+4OH- 0.76

Br(I)-(-I) BrO-+H2O+2e-=Br-+2OH- 0.761

Cl(I)-(-I) ClO-+H2O+2e-=Cl-+2OH- 0.841

*Cl(IV)-(III) ClO2(g)+e-=ClO2- 0.95

O(0)-(-II) O3+H2O+2e-=O2+2OH- 1.24

标准电极电势表

半反应 E° (V) 来源

& -9

Zz 9

N N2(g) + H+ + e? HN3(aq) -3.09 [6]

Li+ + e? Li(s) -3.0401 [5]

N2(g) + 4 H2O + 2 e? 2 NH2OH(aq) + 2 OH? -3.04 [6]

Cs+ + e? Cs(s) -3.026 [5]

Rb+ + e? Rb(s) -2.98 [4]

K+ + e? K(s) -2.931 [5]

Ba2+ + 2 e? Ba(s) -2.912 [5]

La(OH)3(s) + 3 e? La(s) + 3OH? -2.90 [5]

Sr2+ + 2 e? Sr(s) -2.899 [5]

Ca2+ + 2 e? Ca(s) -2.868 [5]

Eu2+ + 2 e? Eu(s) -2.812 [5]

Ra2+ + 2 e? Ra(s) -2.8 [5]

Na+ + e? Na(s) -2.71 [5][9]

La3+ + 3 e? La(s) -2.379 [5]

Y3+ + 3 e? Y(s) -2.372 [5]

Mg2+ + 2 e? Mg(s) -2.372 [5]

ZrO(OH)2(s) + H2O + 4 e? Zr(s) + 4OH? -2.36 [5]

Al(OH)4? + 3 e? Al(s) + 4 OH? -2.33

Al(OH)3(s) + 3 e? Al(s) + 3OH? -2.31

H2(g) + 2 e? 2 H? -2.25

Ac3+ + 3 e? Ac(s) -2.20

Be2+ + 2 e? Be(s) -1.85

U3+ + 3 e? U(s) -1.66 [7]

Al3+ + 3 e? Al(s) -1.66 [9]

Ti2+ + 2 e? Ti(s) -1.63 [9]

ZrO2(s) + 4 H+ + 4 e? Zr(s) + 2 H2O -1.553 [5]

Zr4+ + 4 e? Zr(s) -1.45 [5]

TiO(s) + 2 H+ + 2 e? Ti(s) + H2O -1.31

Ti2O3(s) + 2 H+ + 2 e? 2 TiO(s) + H2O -1.23

Ti3+ + 3 e? Ti(s) -1.21

Te(s) + 2 e? Te2? -1.143 [2]

V2+ + 2 e? V(s) -1.13 [2]

Nb3+ + 3 e? Nb(s) -1.099

Sn(s) + 4 H+ + 4 e? SnH4(g) -1.07

Mn2+ + 2 e? Mn(s) -1.029 [9]

SiO2(s) + 4 H+ + 4 e? Si(s) + 2 H2O -0.91

B(OH)3(aq) + 3 H+ + 3 e? B(s) + 3 H2O -0.89

TiO2+ + 2 H+ + 4 e? Ti(s) + H2O -0.86

Bi(s) + 3 H+ + 3 e? BiH3 -0.8

H2 H2O + 2 e? H2(g) + 2 OH? -0.8277 [5]

Zn2+ + 2 e? Zn(Hg) -0.7628 [5]

Zn2+ + 2 e? Zn(s) -0.7618 [5]

Ta2O5(s) + 10 H+ + 10 e? 2 Ta(s) + 5 H2O -0.75

Cr3+ + 3 e? Cr(s) -0.74

Au[Au(CN)2]? + e? Au(s) + 2 CN? -0.60

Ta3+ + 3 e? Ta(s) -0.6

PbO(s) + H2O + 2 e? Pb(s) + 2 OH? -0.58

Ti2 TiO2(s) + 2 H+ + 2 e? Ti2O3(s) + H2O -0.56

Ga3+ + 3 e? Ga(s) -0.53

U4+ + e? U3+ -0.52 [7]

P H3PO2(aq) + H+ + e? P(白磷[10]) + 2 H2O -0.508 [5]

P H3PO3(aq) + 2 H+ + 2 e? H3PO2(aq) + H2O -0.499 [5]

P H3PO3(aq) + 3 H+ + 3 e? P(红磷)[10] + 3H2O -0.454 [5]

Fe2+ + 2 e? Fe(s) -0.44 [9]

C2 CO2(g) + 2 H+ + 2 e? HOOCCOOH(aq) -0.43

Cr3+ + e? Cr2+ -0.42

Cd2+ + 2 e? Cd(s) -0.40 [9]

GeO2(s) + 2 H+ + 2 e? GeO(s) + H2O -0.37

Cu2O(s) + H2O + 2 e? 2 Cu(s) + 2 OH? -0.360 [5]

PbSO4(s) + 2 e? Pb(s) + SO42? -0.3588 [5]

PbSO4(s) + 2 e? Pb(Hg) + SO42? -0.3505 [5]

Eu3+ + e? Eu2+ -0.35 [7]

In3+ + 3 e? In(s) 0.34 [2]

Tl+ + e? Tl(s) -0.34 [2]

Ge(s) + 4 H+ + 4 e? GeH4(g) -0.29

Co2+ + 2 e? Co(s) -0.28 [5]

P H3PO4(aq) + 2 H+ + 2 e? H3PO3(aq) + H2O -0.276 [5]

V3+ + e? V2+ 0.26 [9]

Ni2+ + 2 e? Ni(s) -0.25

As(s) + 3 H+ + 3 e? AsH3(g) -0.23 [2]

MoO2(s) + 4 H+ + 4 e? Mo(s) + 2 H2O -0.15

Si(s) + 4 H+ + 4 e? SiH4(g) -0.14

Sn2+ + 2 e? Sn(s) -0.13

O2(g) + H+ + e? HO2·(aq) -0.13

Pb2+ + 2 e? Pb(s) -0.13 [9]

WO2(s) + 4 H+ + 4 e? W(s) + 2 H2O -0.12

P(红磷) + 3 H+ + 3 e? PH3(g) -0.111 [5]

C CO2(g) + 2 H+ + 2 e? HCOOH(aq) -0.11

Se(s) + 2 H+ + 2 e? H2Se(g) -0.11

C CO2(g) + 2 H+ + 2 e? CO(g) + H2O -0.11

SnO(s) + 2 H+ + 2 e? Sn(s) + H2O -0.10

SnO2(s) + 2 H+ + 2 e? SnO(s) + H2O -0.09

WO3(aq) + 6 H+ + 6 e? W(s) + 3 H2O -0.09 [2]

P(白磷) + 3 H+ + 3 e? PH3(g) -0.063 [5]

C HCOOH(aq) + 2 H+ + 2 e? HCHO(aq) + H2O -0.03

H 2 H+ + 2 e? H2(g) ≡ 0

S4O62? + 2 e? 2 S2O32? +0.08

Fe3O4(s) + 8 H+ + 8 e? 3 Fe(s) + 4 H2O +0.085 [8]

N2(g) + 2 H2O + 6H+ + 6 e? 2 NH4OH(aq) +0.092

HgO(s) + H2O + 2 e? Hg(l) + 2 OH? +0.0977

Cu(NH3)42+ + e? Cu(NH3)2+ + 2 NH3 +0.10 [2]

Ru(NH3)63+ + e? Ru(NH3)62+ +0.10 [7]

N2H4(aq) + 4 H2O + 2 e? 2 NH4+ + 4 OH? +0.11 [6]

Mo H2MoO4(aq) + 6 H+ + 6 e? Mo(s) + 4 H2O +0.11

Ge4+ + 4 e? Ge(s) +0.12

C(s) + 4 H+ + 4 e? CH4(g) +0.13 [2]

C HCHO(aq) + 2 H+ + 2 e? CH3OH(aq) +0.13

S(s) + 2 H+ + 2 e? H2S(g) +0.14

Sn4+ + 2 e? Sn2+ +0.15

Cu2+ + e? Cu+ +0.159 [2]

S HSO4? + 3 H+ + 2 e? SO2(aq) + 2 H2O +0.16

UO22+ + e? UO2+ +0.163 [7]

S SO42? + 4 H+ + 2 e? SO2(aq) + 2 H2O +0.17

TiO2+ + 2 H+ + e? Ti3+ + H2O +0.19

Bi3+ + 2e? Bi+ +0.2

SbO+ + 2 H+ + 3 e? Sb(s) + H2O +0.20

As H3AsO3(aq) + 3 H+ + 3 e? As(s) + 3 H2O +0.24

GeO(s) + 2 H+ + 2 e? Ge(s) + H2O +0.26

UO2+ + 4 H+ + e? U4+ + 2 H2O +0.273 [7]

Re3+ + 3 e? Re(s) +0.300

Bi3+ + 3 e? Bi(s) +0.32

VO2+ + 2 H+ + e? V3+ + H2O +0.34

Cu2+ + 2 e? Cu(s) +0.340 [2]

Fe [Fe(CN)6]3? + e? [Fe(CN)6]4? +0.36

O2(g) + 2 H2O + 4 e? 4 OH?(aq) +0.40 [9]

Mo H2MoO4 + 6 H+ + 3 e? Mo3+ + 2 H2O +0.43

Bi+ + e? Bi(s) +0.50

C CH3OH(aq) + 2 H+ + 2 e? CH4(g) + H2O +0.50

S SO2(aq) + 4 H+ + 4 e? S(s) + 2 H2O +0.50

Cu+ + e? Cu(s) +0.520 [2]

C CO(g) + 2 H+ + 2 e? C(s) + H2O +0.52

I2(s) + 2 e? 2 I? +0.54 [9]

I3? + 2 e? 3 I? +0.53 [9]

Au [AuI4]? + 3 e? Au(s) + 4 I? +0.56

As H3AsO4(aq) + 2 H+ + 2 e? H3AsO3(aq) + H2O +0.56

Au [AuI2]? + e? Au(s) + 2 I? +0.58

MnO4? + 2 H2O + 3 e? MnO2(s) + 4 OH? +0.59

S2O32 ? + 6 H+ + 4 e? 2 S(s) + 3 H2O +0.60

Mo H2MoO4(aq) + 2 H+ + 2 e? MoO2(s) + 2 H2O +0.65

O2(g) + 2 H+ + 2 e? H2O2(aq) +0.70

Tl3+ + 3 e? Tl(s) +0.72

PtCl62? + 2 e? PtCl42? + 2 Cl? +0.726 [7]

Se H2SeO3(aq) + 4 H+ + 4 e? Se(s) + 3 H2O +0.74

PtCl42? + 2 e? Pt(s) + 4 Cl? +0.758 [7]

Fe3+ + e? Fe2+ +0.77

Ag+ + e? Ag(s) +0.7996 [5]

Hg22+ + 2 e? 2 Hg(l) +0.80

N NO3?(aq) + 2 H+ + e? NO2(g) + H2O +0.80

Au [AuBr4]? + 3 e? Au(s) + 4 Br? +0.85

Hg2+ + 2 e? Hg(l) +0.85

MnO4? + H+ + e? HMnO4? +0.90

Hg 2 Hg2+ + 2 e? Hg22+ +0.91 [2]

Pd2+ + 2 e? Pd(s) +0.915 [7]

Au [AuCl4]? + 3 e? Au(s) + 4 Cl? +0.93

MnO2(s) + 4 H+ + e? Mn3+ + 2 H2O +0.95

Au [AuBr2]? + e? Au(s) + 2 Br? +0.96

Br2(l) + 2 e? 2 Br? +1.07

Br2(aq) + 2 e? 2 Br? +1.09 [9]

I IO3? + 5 H+ + 4 e? HIO(aq) + 2 H2O +1.13

Au [AuCl2]? + e? Au(s) + 2 Cl? +1.15

Se HSeO4? + 3 H+ + 2 e? H2SeO3(aq) + H2O +1.15

Ag2O(s) + 2 H+ + 2 e? 2 Ag(s) + H2O +1.17

ClO3? + 2 H+ + e? ClO2(g) + H2O +1.18

Pt2+ + 2 e? Pt(s) +1.188 [7]

ClO2(g) + H+ + e? HClO2(aq) +1.19

I 2 IO3? + 12 H+ + 10 e? I2(s) + 6 H2O +1.20

ClO4? + 2 H+ + 2 e? ClO3? + H2O +1.20

O2(g) + 4 H+ + 4 e? 2 H2O +1.23 [9]

MnO2(s) + 4 H+ + 2 e? Mn2+ + 2H2O +1.23

Tl3+ + 2 e? Tl+ +1.25

Cl2(g) + 2 e? 2 Cl? +1.36 [9]

Cr2O7? ? + 14 H+ + 6 e? 2 Cr3+ + 7 H2O +1.33

CoO2(s) + 4 H+ + e? Co3+ + 2 H2O +1.42

N 2 NH3OH+ + H+ + 2 e? N2H5+ + 2 H2O +1.42 [6]

I 2 HIO(aq) + 2 H+ + 2 e? I2(s) + 2 H2O +1.44

Ce4+ + e? Ce3+ +1.44

BrO3? + 5 H+ + 4 e? HBrO(aq) + 2 H2O +1.45

PbO β-PbO2(s) + 4 H+ + 2 e? Pb2+ + 2 H2O +1.460 [2]

PbO α-PbO2(s) + 4 H+ + 2 e? Pb2+ + 2 H2O +1.468 [2]

Br 2 BrO3? + 12 H+ + 10 e? Br2(l) + 6 H2O +1.48

Cl 2ClO3? + 12 H+ + 10 e? Cl2(g) + 6 H2O +1.49

MnO4? + 8 H+ + 5 e? Mn2+ + 4 H2O +1.51

O HO2· + H+ + e? H2O2(aq) +1.51

Au3+ + 3 e? Au(s) +1.52

NiO2(s) + 4 H+ + 2 e? Ni2+ + 2 OH? +1.59

Cl 2 HClO(aq) + 2 H+ + 2 e? Cl2(g) + 2 H2O +1.63

Ag2O3(s) + 6 H+ + 4 e? 2 Ag+ + 3 H2O +1.67

Cl HClO2(aq) + 2 H+ + 2 e? HClO(aq) + H2O +1.67

Pb4+ + 2 e? Pb2+ +1.69 [2]

MnO4? + 4 H+ + 3 e? MnO2(s) + 2 H2O +1.70

O H2O2(aq) + 2 H+ + 2 e? 2 H2O +1.78

AgO(s) + 2 H+ + e? Ag+ + H2O +1.77

Co3+ + e? Co2+ +1.82

Au+ + e? Au(s) +1.83 [2]

BrO4? + 2 H+ + 2 e? BrO3? + H2O +1.85

Ag2+ + e? Ag+ +1.98 [2]

S2O82? + 2 e? 2 SO42? +2.07

O3(g) + 2 H+ + 2 e? O2(g) + H2O +2.075 [7]

Mn HMnO4? + 3 H+ + 2 e? MnO2(s) + 2 H2O +2.09

F2(g) + 2 e? 2 F? +2.87 [2][9]

F2(g) + 2 H+ + 2 e? 2 HF(aq) +3.05 [2]

来源:

【1】 Milazzo, G., Caroli, S., and Sharma, V. K. (1978). Tables of Standard Electrode Potentials (Wiley,Chichester).

【2】 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 Bard, A. J., Parsons, R., and Jordan, J. (1985). Standard Potentials in Aqueous Solutions (Marcel Dekker, New York).

【3】  Bratsch, S. G. (1989). Journal of Physical Chemistry Reference Data Vol. 18, pp. 1–21.

【4】 4.0 4.1 Vanýsek, Petr (2006). "Electrochemical Series," in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics: 87th Edition (Chemical Rubber Company).

【5】 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22 5.23 5.24 5.25 5.26 5.27 5.28 5.29 5.30 Vanýsek, Petr (2007). “Electrochemical Series”, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics: 88th Edition (Chemical Rubber Company).

【6】  6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Greenwood, N. N.; Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd Edition, Oxford:Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-3365-4.

【7】 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 Bard, A.J., Faulkner, L.R.(2001). Electrochemical Methods. Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd edition (John Wiley and Sons Inc).

【8】  8.0 8.1 Marcel Pourbaix (1966). Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions (NACE International, Houston, Texas; Cebelcor, Brussels).

【9】 9.00 9.01 9.02 9.03 9.04 9.05 9.06 9.07 9.08 9.09 9.10 9.11 9.12 9.13 9.14 9.15 Peter Atkins (1997). Physical Chemistry, 6th edition (W.H. Freeman and Company, New York).

【10】 10.0 10.1 由?0.454和(2×?0.499 + ?0.508) ÷ 3 = ?0.502推算出。

 

扩展阅读:

摘自

1 David R.Lide, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 8-25-1 8-30, 78th. edition, 1997-1998

2 摘自J.A. Dean Ed,Lange’s Handbook of Chemistry, 13th. edition, 1985

3 Xeqint

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